While words can be considered as separate units that make up the offer, the proposals themselves with & # 39 are the components that make up the paragraph. As part of the fiction, whether it is non-fiction, memoirs, autobiography, flash fiction, short literature or genre of the novel, they have the form, structure and function. This article will address all three.
Purpose and structure of paragraphs:
Visually paragraph serves as a block proposals typically the first line with the slits. This retreat signals the beginning of each of the following in the text.
"As a reader, you identify a paragraph at a glance, just him with a & # 39; appearance," according to Carol Pemberton in his book "Writing paragraphs" (Allyn and Bacon, 1997, p 1.). "Paragraphs vary greatly in length, because they are different in content and purpose."
Organizational writer they allow one to focus on the basic idea, which can be either refined or supported by one or more suitable points. Associated second or a related idea, the following paragraph is doing the same, and together they illustrate a longer, more ahoplivayuchuyu idea or topic, as it would be expressed in an essay, term paper or a book, non-fiction and leader.
Paragraphs can contain both general and specific statements such as the following.
General Information: Movies can be strained.
Specific: Films such as Die Hard and Die Hard 2, its rapid action can be stressful.
A second example of the & # 39 is specific, as he calls the two films, and explains why they are wary.
General statements are inclined to interpret the reader can summarize the main idea in each paragraph, but the specific of them allow you to focus on specific features of the basic idea.
Properly structured paragraph contains two integer elements.
1). The overall theme proposal, which is usually a & # 39 is the first, which refers to the main idea of a paragraph.
2). One or more specific proposals that support and illustrate the main idea.
Consider the following passage, which offer themed boldface type and whose support proposals to & # 39 are standard prints.
"There are ways to save on aviyabiletse. Not all seats on all flights have the same price tag. For example, if you can book early enough, you can usually find a lower price tariff, because the seats reserved for him, are still available. People travel on weekends, flying in the middle of the week, such as Tuesday or Wednesday, and secondly offer the lowest prices on travel, and finally, if you are flying in a less popular seasons such as winter, you can take advantage of lower fares airlines. They offer to fill tr dytsyyna empty planes. "
Besides the basic structure of the paragraph, it should contain other elements. One of them – unity.
"When used for writing paragraphs unity means that the paragraph – this is one basic idea," – emphasizes Pemberton (ibid, page 7). "All the statements in the paragraph are related to one idea. The writer does not depart from the idea, on the contrary, remains with her and leads readers to a clear understanding."
As shown in the previous example, the thematic proposal as an introduction to what is to follow, argued that there are ways to save on the pace and maintaining, preserving the unity of the topic, I gave three methods that.
Another important element of the paragraph with the & # 39 is the support or development – that is, if the writer supports, develops and almost proves your theme? If in the previous example, the discussion of the main topics included the best hotels in Florida, it would have had nothing.
Another element – is the length. The very length of paragraph depends on the topic and offers varies depending on the degree of development that occurs as a result of, or the amount of support needed for his illustrations.
Finally, a final statement or offers evidence-based, long deliberation or permutation topics.
While at school students little opportunity to choose the topics about which they need to write because of the tasks corresponding to the curriculum, while others, especially writers, freelancers, almost limitless in what they can learn in the paragraphs and longer parts of which these items are made.
However, they should consider several aspects before they try to turn ideas into words.
Interest, knowledge, experience and abilities in the first place should serve as a weather vane pointing to potential subjects. If a person has something to interest, it is likely that this led to him know about it, perhaps, through the study and even his personal experience with it, which allows him to explore and explain it in writing.
If, on the other hand, it is impossible to choose a theme, the writer can always take a specified and approach it with a new, fresh or different angle.
The goal – is another aspect. Although a school assignment, of course, is the "purpose", while others are not necessarily required, may write to inform, advise others, advise, entertain.
A third reader reading must always be taken into account if the author writes something, especially if it is the intention to publish. Job in the school, to be sure, will read a teacher or professor, perhaps for evaluation. Journey, which discusses important sights of the city of San Antonio, Texas, will contribute to the planning of tourist trips. And the article about caring for rose gardens will appeal to those who have a home flora.
The ideas of writing may be the result of an internal inspiration, external stimulation or brainstorm different options, and then filtering, sorting and grouping of items that will be discussed.
Dual purpose thematic proposals;
"Thematic proposal states that the main idea of the paragraph," says Pemberton (ibid, p. 35). "For this reason it is the most important sentence in the paragraph. The writers make a paragraph in support of the thematic proposals, and readers rely on their proposals, to find out what the main ideas are developed."
The very theme proposal has two objectives. First, it establishes and predicts the target item. Second, it reduces the scope of its activities, offering the idea of controlling, creating parameters to which the author should follow the information to be relevant and not straying from its purpose.
Thematic proposal should lead to a discussion and to develop and is narrow enough idea to be adequately addressed in the same paragraph, but should not be complete in itself without this mentioned point.
Consider the following suggestions.
"The fundamental value of writing for the student is that it improves its assessment". The last four words, "it improves his grades," it limits the items that can be discussed in this section, the reader and creates the expectation that he will learn to do it.
"Think of the thematic proposals as a writer reader promises" – advises Pemberton (ibid, p. 36). "The writer promises to discuss said the main idea."
SUPPORT section TEMNICHNAE WORDS:
Although topical application of a general nature, and sometimes short, the proposals which follow in support of them, should be specific and may be longer because they typically represent the facts. They are intended to provide the reader with accurate and clear understanding.
General references often leaves the reader open to interpretation based on their own experience and understanding. For example, "dobraaplatnaya position" can mean an unemployed 25 thousand dollars, and for the wealthy – a seven-digit figure. Without specific numbers nobody will ever know what it means for the author.
In order to support the thematic proposal, the writer must use the specific details, facts, examples, and even published quotes, for example, "13.5 percent of Americans live in poverty," says the article, "Zbyarenne poverty" by 15 September. , 2019, the magazine "News and Views".
"Details of the provided support," says Pemberton (ibid, p. 62). "(They are) – it is concrete information that shows that the writer is referring to the thematic offer examples illustrate the main idea in the paragraph can be used one or more examples, depending on the general idea, which is supported by independent observers agree Quotes -…. It the exact words of the writer or speaker. "
Another important element of writing paragraphs with & # 39 is consistency. The very consistency entails several aspects. For example, the relationship between ideas must be clear and interlinked – that is, logically and smoothly flow from the previous one. Supporting the idea of further explain previous statements. The main ideas can be expressed through repetition. Finally, the text stream is provided and enhanced by means of transition words such as "but", "however", "however", "so", "for" and "while", among others.
"Reading clumsy letters like riding with the lost driver who wanders through the crowded streets, palyavayuchy for the destination, but a waste of time and pulling passengers," says Pemberton (ibid, page 68).
Consider the sequence of the next step.
"I just returned from a rough day. I have, as usual, at 6:30 am on fire alarm and I showered and dressed. It seemed to be a drizzle, so I brought an umbrella. The sky was hardly drops. But all We rode as if throwing cats and dogs, and I'm almost 15 minutes late for work, I found a report from my secretary on the table, I think it has a problem with the relationship, because it does not have & # 39;.. lately did not have the smell. Maybe she did not sleep last night. I had such a night last week. Even Tylenol did not help. Because I miss traffic ive opening Harold Comment on the meeting. He has twice told me that we would go fishing on Saturday, but do not seem to remember where I put it to myself. I dropped my lunch, and I almost got into a fight with a customer day. Hardly crawling traffic because of the rain, when I went home. I walked into the kitchen, I realized that I did not go to the shops with food l ately, so cabinets and e naked. I instead plopped down on the sofa, still in a suit and tie, and I fell asleep. "
Consistency can be improved by proper use of transitional words, phrases and sentences.
"The words, phrases and sentences that are used as passages like bridges that transport readers into security from one point to another," – advises Pemberton (ibid, page 72).
Exposure Writing entails explanation, description, illustrating (in words) and disclosure and a & # 39 is almost in all genres, including fiction. While writing the story can demonstrate actions, emotions, feelings and moods through conversation and interaction of two or more characters, it simply tells ekspazitarny colleague, as in "Regina and Dawn parted last night" or "The garden was a tangle of weeds." It is certainly important for writing paragraphs.
There are several methods of writing the exposure that can be used and may even improve the creation paragraphs. The first of them provided for comparing and contrasting.
"Writing with a sample of comparison / contrast, you study the similarity (comparison) and difference (contrast) between two people of the & # 39; objects or ideas," says Pemberton (rate, page 135.). "A theme can be as abstract as socialism against capitalism, or it can be as specific as toothpaste brand against brand X Y. It is obvious that the topic should be narrow enough for one point, to allow discussion of the specific similarities and differences."
Consider the following two examples.
By comparison, "The small restaurant, which opened in the city last month, is very similar to dinner, the service friendly, the food is simple and useful, and reasonable prices."
Contrast: "Wheat bread Frayer similar to Hoffmayer & # 39; s: natural and baked with stone-ground wheat On the other hand, it tends to be more rough and dry.".
Another method of writing the exposure indicated by "writing process". Ideal for instructions and guidance, representing chronological, step by step procedure as follows.
"In order to convert the chair, you first need to move it to the work area, for example, in the basement or garage. Next you need to remove staples or staples that hold the tissue attached to the frame. .If the chair will be five or more years, he might , began to disintegrate, and you will most likely want to replace it. Measure the area covered by them, and cut a new stuffing according to the desired size, tight zapakuyuchy him in a chair & # new fabric coating also need to cut to size measurements. After you will, pull it around chair frame before re-cross-linking or re-attachment to the place. You may need a helping hand to pull one side of it, until pryshpilyaesh another. Finally, bring back the chair to its original place. "
Another method of writing the exposure – a classification. This allows the author to classify objects, things, ideas and even people and then provide enough detail that the reader can understand the differences between them. However, the only common denominator of the & # 39; combines paragraph. Consider the following example.
"All published books written, but there are differences between them, for example, from the United States and the United Kingdom has the English language, however, words such as & # 39;.. Haven & # 39; spelled differently letter & # 39; u, & # 39, in the harbor & # 39; & # 39; If they are placed vertically on a shelf, their names are read from top to bottom Books in Germany, obviously, in this language, but the titles on the spines are read from the bottom up English or German, but.. with & # 39 are in Hebrew and read from the back cover, which is actually the front. Pages are read from right to left. ".
In this example, the "book" with the & # 39 is the common denominator, but their spelling, language, printing on the spine and read direction are their honors.
Another technique of writing the exposure – a definition.
"Usually, the definition is very short – just to explain a term or concept, which is either unknown or is used in an unusual sense …" – says Pemberton (ibid, page 157.). "However, sometimes … a paragraph will be devoted to expanding the definition of the term. Because of the greater length of the readers naturally expect that one value (or perhaps several meanings) will be developed."
Consider this example of a paragraph, proposes a definition.
"The most common in the world of the definition of" alone "- is anywhere without at least one company or presence But this conception is more than just exist independently If you are uncomfortable you are suspicious and are therefore not able to connect to.. others, you are equally alone, because you can not complete the connection man-man or the soul-a soul. the definition goes beyond the pure presence of the other. If you are going to, for example, with ten friends, but still not be able to contact them in some meaningful way, you can also . Ichyts lonely Finally, if you try to go up to someone and he or she does not show any interest to you, or even give up, you can also consider themselves lonely & # 39; ".
Pemberton, Carol. "Writing paragraphs". Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, +1997.